OK first lets be clear that cloud computing is not a computer on the cloud or in the sky all the infrastructure are on the ground. Cloud Computing gives us potential of getting access to the functions as utilities over the Internet.It approves us to create, configure, and personalize the purposes online. In different words, we can say that Cloud is something, which is existing at far off location. Cloud can grant offerings over public and non-public networks, i.e., WAN, LAN or VPN. So today lets talk about what cloud computing is and cloud computing services like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) , Infrastructure-as–a-Service (IaaS), and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS). Also we are going to learn about public cloud, private cloud, community cloud and hybrid cloud.
What is Cloud Computing?
Cloud Computing refers to manipulating, configuring, and getting access to the hardware and software program sources remotely. It presents on-line records storage, infrastructure, and application.Cloud computing provides platform independently, as the software program is now not required to be mounted regionally on the PC. Hence, the Cloud Computing services is making our commercial enterprise functions cellular and collaborative.
According to AWS, “Cloud computing is the on-demand delivery of IT resources over the Internet with pay-as-you-go pricing. Instead of buying, owning, and maintaining physical data centers and servers, you can access technology services, such as computing power, storage, and databases, on an as-needed basis from a cloud provider like Amazon Web Services (AWS).”
There are 4 types of cloud computing on the basis of deployment models and 3 types on the basis of services models
Types of cloud computing on the basis of deployment models:
- Public Cloud
The public cloud permits structures and offerings to be effortlessly on hand to the ordinary public. Public cloud may additionally be much less tightly closed due to the fact of its openness.
- Private Cloud
The personal or private cloud lets in structures and offerings to be reachable inside an organization. It is extra secured due to the fact of its personal nature
- Community Cloud
The Community cloud permits structures and offerings to be available by way of a crew of organizations.
- Hybrid Cloud
The hybrid cloud is a combination of public and non-public cloud, in which the essential things to do are carried out the usage of non-public cloud whilst the non-critical things to do are carried out the use of public cloud.
Types of cloud computing on the basis of Services models:
- Infrastructure-as–a-Service (IaaS)
The Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is the most primary stage of service. Each of the provider fashions inherit the protection and administration mechanism from the underlying model. for example physical machines, virtual machines, virtual storage. IaaS is highly used services by Enterprise organizations. IaaS is highly used by enterprise organizations.
- Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)
PaaS offers the runtime surroundings for applications, improvement and deployment tools, etc.for example deployment tools , web servers, Database and so on.
- Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
SaaS permits to use software program purposes as a provider to end-users.
- On-Demand Self service
cloud computing service providers like AWS or Microsoft Azure enables the provision of cloud resources on demand whenever they are needed.
- multi AZ
You don’t need to install your own server in different geological location. you can simply choose where the application should be stored and they will do it for you.
- Cost Savings
It helps you to keep good sized capital value as it does now not want any bodily hardware investments. Also, you do now not want educated personnel to keep the hardware. The shopping for and managing of tools is executed by using the cloud provider provider. It can be used in research where heavy computing power is needed like Artificial Intelligence.
- Strategic edge
It gives a aggressive facet over your competitors. It helps you to get entry to the trendy and functions any time except spending your time and cash on installations.
- High Speed
It lets in you to installation your carrier rapidly in fewer clicks. This quicker deployment lets in you to get the assets required for your machine inside fewer minutes.
- Back-up and restore data
Once the statistics is saved in a Cloud, it is less complicated to get the back-up and restoration of that, which is in any other case very time taking technique on-premise.
- Automatic Software Integration
In the cloud, software program integration is some thing that happens automatically. Therefore, you do not want to take extra efforts to personalize and combine your functions as per your preferences.
Reliability is one of the best feature of cloud computing. You can usually get right away up to date about the changes.
Employees who are working on the premises or at the faraway places can effortlessly get admission to all the may want to services. All they want is an Internet connectivity.
- Quick Deployment
The cloud computing offers you the benefit of fast deployment. So, when you figure out to use the cloud, your complete gadget can be wholly purposeful in very few minutes. Although, the quantity of time taken relies upon on what form of applied sciences are used in your busines
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
- Performance Can Vary When you are working in a cloud environment, your software is strolling on the server which concurrently presents sources to different businesses. Any grasping conduct or DDOS assault on your tenant should have an effect on the overall performance of your shared resource.
- Technical Issues When you are working in a cloud environment, your software is strolling on the server which concurrently presents sources to different businesses. Any grasping conduct or DDOS assault on your tenant should have an effect on the overall performance of your shared resource.
- Security Threat in the Cloud When you are working in a cloud environment, your software is strolling on the server which concurrently presents sources to different businesses. Any grasping conduct or DDOS assault on your tenant should have an effect on the overall performance of your shared resource.
- Internet Connectivity Good Internet connectivity is a need to in cloud computing. You can not get entry to cloud barring an net connection. Moreover, you do not have any different way to acquire records from the cloud.
- Lacks of Support Cloud Computing groups fail to furnish appropriate help to the customers. Moreover, they choose their consumer to rely on FAQs or on-line help, which can be a tedious job for non-technical persons.
Some Top Cloud Computing Service Provider
- Amazon Web Services
- Microsoft Azure
- Google Cloud Platform
- Alibaba Cloud
- IBM bluemix
Cloud Computing is today’s need, so we have to understand about cloud computing if we prefer hold up to date in the area of technology. Despite all the seasoned and cons, we can not deny the reality that Cloud Computing is the quickest developing phase of network-based computing. It presents a extremely good gain to clients of all sizes: easy users, developers, companies and all sorts of organizations. So, this technological know-how right here to remain for a lengthy time.
Linux commands Syntax
$command options arguments
Let’s start with some simple commands.
1. pwd and ls command
/‘pwd’ command prints the absolute path to current working directory.
and ls command is used to list all files inside current directory.
$ cd /usr/share/
$ cd doc
The above command does the following thing:
checks the current directory.
change the directory to /user/share/
check the current directory.
change the directory to doc/
check the current directory.
2. cal command
$ cal‘cal ’ is also used to display calendar for the specified month and year. Here the month and year are arguments.and the command is :
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31
$ cal 3 2021This command is used to display the calendar of 2021 march.
3. echo command
$ echo “sapkotasunil.com.np”To save something in a file you can use this command like:
$ echo “this is the content of the file” >> file.txt
4. id command
$ id uid=1000(sunil) gid=1000(sunil) groups=1000(sunil),4(adm),24(cdrom),27(sudo),30(dip),46(plugdev)
5. date command
$ date Fri Jul 6 01:07:09 IST 2012
6. clear command
7. Listing File And Directories Command
$ ls [files-or-directories-names]List all the files and/or directories. If no argument is given, the contents of current directory will be shown.
$ ls example file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt
8. mkdir command
$ mkdir dirName
9. touch command
$ touch file1
10. copy, move and remove command
$cp source destinationCopy files and directories. If the source is a file, and the destination (file) name does not exit, then source is copied with new name i.e. with the name provided as the destination.
$ cp usrlisting listing_copy.txtTo remove files and directories
$ rm files|directoriesA directory must be removed recursively with -r option.
$ rm -r folder1you can also use “rmdir” command to remove an empty directory.
11. cat command
$ cat /etc/passwd
12. grep command
$ grep pass /etc/passwd
$ nano hello.txtHaving made all the changes to the file, press ‘ctrl+o’ to write the changes to the file and ‘ctrl+x’ to exit from the editor. There are a lot of functions available with this editor. The help menu can be accessed with ‘ctrl+g’ keystrokes.
14. Shutdown Command
$ shutdown -h now
15. Get help for any command in case your don't know how to use or forget.
i) help option
With almost every command, ‘–help’ or “-h” option shows usage summary for that command.
$ date –help
Usage: date [OPTION]… [+FORMAT] or: date [-u|–utc|–universal] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] Display the current time in the given FORMAT, or set the system date.
ii) whatis command
This command gives a one line description about the command which used as a quick reference for any command.
$ whatis date
date (1) – print or set the system date and time
$ whatis whatis
whatis (1) – display manual page descriptions
iii) Manual Pages
For more detailed information, Linux provides man pages and info pages. To see a command’s manual page, man command is used.
$ man date
The man pages are properly documented pages. They have following sections:
NAME: The name and one line description of the command.
SYNOPSIS: The command syntax.
DESCRIPTION: Detailed description about what a command does.
OPTIONS: A list and description of all of the command’s options.
EXAMPLES: Examples of command usage.
FILES: Any file associated with the command.
AUTHOR: Author of the man page
REPORTING BUGS: Link of website or mail-id where you can report any bug.
SEE ALSO: Any commands related to the command, for further reference.
iv) Info pages
Info documents are sometimes more elaborate than the man pages.These are like web pages. Internal links are present within the info pages. These links are called nodes. Info pages can be navigated from one page to another through these nodes.
$ info date
Modern cryptography concerns itself with the following four objectives:
Types of Cryptography
Types of Cryptography
There are several ways to categorize encryption, but for our purposes here, I have broken them down into four main areas.
- Symmetric Encryption
- Asymmetric Encryption
Some of the common symmetric algorithms that you should be familiar with are:
· DES –
This was one of the original and oldest encryption schemes developed by IBM. It was found to be flawed and breakable and was used in the original hashing system of LANMAN hashes in early (pre-2000) Windows systems.
· 3DES –
This encryption algorithm was developed in response to the flaws in DES. 3DES applies the DES algorithm three times (hence the name “triple DES”) making it slightly more secure than DES.
· AES –
This is the acronym for Secure Hash Algorithm. SHA algorithms are used to generate condensed representations of a message (message digest). It has various versions such as;
produces 120-bit hash values. It was withdrawn from use due to significant flaws and replaced by SHA-1.
produces 160-bit hash values. It is similar to earlier versions of MD5. It has cryptographic weakness and is not recommended for use since the year 2010.
It has two hash functions namely SHA-256 and SHA-512. SHA-256 uses 32-bit words while SHA-512 uses 64-bit words.
This algorithm was formally known as Keccak.
· RC4 –
This is a streaming (it encrypts each bit or byte rather than a block of information) cipher and developed by Ronald Rivest of RSA fame. Used in VoIP and WEP.
The first of Bruce Schneier‘s encryption algorithms. It uses a variable key length and is very secure. It is not patented, so anyone can use it without license.
Asymmetric cryptography uses different keys on both end of the communication channel. This cryptography is very slow, about 1,000 times slower than symmetric cryptography, so we don’t want to use it for bulk encryption or streaming communication. It does, however, solve the key exchange problem. Since we don’t need to have the same key on both ends of a communication, we don’t have the issue of key exchange.
Some of common asymmetric encryption schemes you should be
familiar with are:
Diffie-Hellman – Many people in the field of cryptography regard the
Diffie-Hellman key exchange to be the greatest development in cryptography Without going deep into the mathematics, Diffie and
Hellman developed a way to generate keys without having to exchange the keys,
thereby solving the key exchange problem that plagues symmetric key encryption.
RSA – Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman is a scheme of asymmetric encryption that uses factorization of very large prime numbers as the relationship between the two keys.
PKI – Public key infrastructure is the widely used asymmetric system for exchanging confidential information using a private key and a public key.
ECC – Elliptical curve cryptography is becoming
increasing popular in mobile computing as it efficient, requiring less
computing power and energy consumption for the same level of security. ECC
relies upon the shared relationship of two functions being on the same
PGP – Pretty Good Privacy uses asymmetric encryption to assure the privacy and integrity of
Hashes are one-way encryption. A message or password is encrypted in a way that it cannot be reversed or unencrypted. You might wonder, “What good would it do us to have a something encrypted and then not be able to decrypt it?” Good question!
Some of the very popular
This was an early hash by Ron Rivest and haslargely been discontinued in use due to collisions.
The most widely used hashing system. It’s 128-bit
and produces a 32-character message digest.
Developed by the NSA, it is more secure than MD5, but
not as widely used. It has 160-bit digest which is usually rendered in
40-character hexadecimal. Often used for certificate exchanges in SSL, but
because of recently discovered flaws, is being deprecated for that purpose.
Wireless cryptography has been a favorite of Hackers as so many here are
trying to crack wireless access points. As you might guess, wireless cryptography is symmetric (for speed), and as with all symmetric cryptography,
key exchange is critical.
This was the original encryption scheme for wireless and was quickly discovered to be flawed. It used RC4, but because of the small key size (24-bit), it repeated the IV about every 5,000 packets enabling easy cracking on a busy network.
This was a quick fix for the flaws of WEP, adding a larger key and TKIP to make it
slightly more difficult to crack.
This was the first of the more secure wireless encryption schemes. It uses a pre-shared
key and AES. It then salts the hashes with the AP name or SSID. The hash is exchanged at authentication in a four-way handshake between the client and AP.
This wireless encryption is the most secure. It uses a 128-bit key, AES, and a remote authentication server (RADIUS).
I hope you keep coming back, as we continue to explore
the wonderful world of information security and hacking!
We may think it is easy to choose to host i.e. just search and go with the cheapest one but This is a bad idea. I’ve reviewed a lot of web hosting providers and got many issues with a lot of hosting companies. so today I want to share a list of the top 10 web hosting services. Certainly from the surface, it’d appear to be picking which web host to traveling with may be a daunting task with numerous technical terms to understand. does one have to choose a shared hosting provider? or simply a landing page? what proportion bandwidth or transfer rate do you need? do you have to get an email account as well? what memory space do you have to buy for your website?
The answer to all such questions is “it depends”. After all, we may different needs counting on our circumstances. Business requirements, for instance, are different from a private website. so lets see the top 10 best web hosting services in 2020
What we plan to neutralize this buying guide provides you with our curated list, watching the foremost popular categories of web hosting available including shared, business, VPS, WordPress, cloud hosting, and email hosting.
Here I’ll show the easy to use and best value for money and cheapest hosting providers and also provide some additional information to assist you to select. I’ve provided a summary for every web hosting provider and highlighted strengths and services which can be important for your choice, plus information on pricing and why each particular web host could also be ideal for you. We also impart some helpful information that aims to supply you with a more informed choice about the online hosting service you would like, and therefore the web hosting provider which will best suit you.
For the cash, you get automated setup for WordPress, to not mention other popular apps via a Mojo Marketplace-powered system. There’s also a cPanel-based area to permit expert users to tweak things. Bluehost may be a company based in Utah which is owned by web giant Endurance International Group (EIG). It offers basic shared hosting from $2.95 monthly (on a three-year contract), with WordPress plans to start at $20 per month (although that’s also a reduced introductory rate).
Furthermore, Bluehost provides a Weebly-based website builder. This is often a basic browser-based affair that allows you to create an internet site of up to 6 pages, and there are not any extras like site templates included. But still, it’s better than nothing, and more functionality is within the pipeline – plus you get this builder with the essential account.
There’s also good customer support on offer, a free WordPress site migration tool and therefore the outcome may be a mixture of user-friendly aspects alongside an honest amount of power, and potential tweaking for more advanced users.
Hostgator delivers a powerful range of hosting services, starting from domains to dedicated servers at very competitive prices and backed by a 99.9% uptime guarantee. this is applicable the maximum amount to their VPS hosting as any of their other hosting options.
Hostgator offers three specific VPS hosting plans, starting with the Snappy 2000, which comes with 2GB RAM, 2 cores of CPU, and 120GB of disc space. The allocations are generous and will accommodate the foremost demanding websites.
An upgrade from that, if required, is that the Snappy 4000, which upgrades RAM to 4GB and storage to 165GB. For more demanding sites that do not yet require their server, you’ll choose the Snappy 8000, which comes with 8GB RAM, 4 cores CPU, and 240 GB storage.
Pricing depends on whether you pay monthly or plan to one among their annual plans. for instance, the Snappy 2000 VPS hosting plan costs $29.95 if you simply want to pay from month to month, but if you plan to a 3-year contract it comes down as low as $19.95 a month.
Additional benefits include a 45-day money-back guarantee, to not mention free transfers for brand spanking new accounts within the primary month after you’ve signed up. There are lots to love here considering the minimal impact on your wallet if you’re happy to commit.
InMotion Hosting may be a popular web host that’s been in business for over 15 years, with a powerful array of plans on offer including reseller hosting.
All plans include assisted found out and migration, especially useful for those coming from other web hosts. Additionally, you will not get to worry about the server-side so InMotion lookout of all that for you.
For those looking to undertake about being an internet host themselves, InMotion’s reseller plans accompany a free WHMCS license, which allows for the automated found out and billing of clients.
InMotion provides both cPanel and Softaculous panels, and another strong suit is a few excellent technical support do you have to grind to a halt with anything. In our testing, we found that this firm’s overall performance levels were well above average, which is sweet news for those that want to ascertain fast-loading websites.
The Beginner reseller plan comes with 80GB of storage, 800GB of bandwidth, and may host up to 25 accounts. Pricing for this on a per monthly basis is $26.59, but this is often discounted the longer you commit, with the most cost-effective option being $15.39 a month if you contract for two years.
Other plans increase limits and pricing accordingly, and there is a 90-day money-back guarantee do you have to not be satisfied with the service.
Hostwinds offers a variety of dedicated servers with powerful configuration options for love or money from general to heavy-duty use, which makes them ideal for hosting everything from company websites to gaming servers.
There are multiple base options to pick, which you’ll then customize consistent with your preferences. the most cost-effective models have a quad-core single processor and begin with a minimum of 8GB of RAM, which might make them ideal for many typical users.
There is an honest set of additional options available for personalization, with different RAID configurations and a variety of operating systems available, including standard CentOS, Debian, Ubuntu, or Fedora options, also as a Windows Server option.
A 1Gbps network link means whichever bandwidth option you select (all of which are generous) you should not get to worry about traffic being throttled at your end.
Full server management is provided, which can be handy for those not eager to get overwhelmed by sysadmin duties, with server monitoring and nightly backups also provided as a part of the service.
If there’s one criticism we’ve, it’s that an impact panel like CPanel, Plesk, or Exim isn’t provided as standard, which may simplify tons of server operations for users; however, if you contact Hostwinds they’ll be happy to advise on the simplest option as an add-on if you do not feel comfortable with fixing one yourself.
Dreamhost offers standalone email hosting among the range of various packages that this established web hosting services provider offers.
Dreamhost’s email hosting offers 25GB of storage by default, with the power to sync emails between desktop and mobile devices. Additionally, there’s an ad-free webmail software platform included.
Another key feature may be a smart anti-spam filter, which ensures the filtering of spam messages, but also viruses, malware, and phishing attacks. The filter is adaptive to emerging threats, ensuring that you simply remain protected.
There are a few key advantages of having your own hosted email account. the primary is that it remains connected to your company name, which looks much more professional than a free email account.
Additionally, it also means you’ve got complete control over your data, which your emails won’t be automatically scanned to supply advertising at you, something free email providers do only too commonly.
Pricing is comparatively inexpensive and depends on whether you would like to pay monthly or plan to annual payments. Monthly plans cost just $1.99 a month, while a yearly commitment reduces this to the equivalent of $1.67 a month.
Founded in California back in 2008, GreenGeeks now proudly claims to be the ‘world’s #1 green energy web hosting provider’, not surprising as long as it’s dedicated entirely to green causes.
That’s an enormous statement, but there’s some substance behind it. the corporate doesn’t just say that its platform has been designed for max energy efficiency, it also promises that “for every amperage we pull from the grid, we invest 3 times that within the sort of renewable energy via Bonneville Environmental Foundation.” So in theory a minimum of, your hosting is not just carbon-neutral, it’s carbon-reducing.
GreenGeeks’ hosting range isn’t quite as impressive. There are the standard set of plans – shared products, application hosting, VPS, dedicated – but there’s not much choice, and what you are doing get is usually very average.
There is one exception in the GreenGeeks’ powerful shared hosting plan. This offers unlimited websites, emails, databases, webspace and bandwidth, and throws during a free domain, shared SSL, Cloudflare CDN integration, nightly backups, the Softaculous one-click app installer, an easy website builder, and support via email, chat, and telephone.
Pay for three years upfront and you’ll get everything for the same $2.95 per month – $9.95 on renewal – and a 30-day money-back guarantee represents a risk-free thanks to testing the service for yourself. it is a bargain, and shows that green hosting is not just about making eco-friendly gestures: you’ll find some capable products, too.
Domain.com could be better referred to as an honest domain provider but their hosting plans are worth a glance too, offering powerful and reliable hosting on a stable and secure platform.
Hosting plans are generous, with even the foremost basic plan offering unlimited storage and scalable bandwidth. 10 databases are available and 5 FTP accounts, and there is also a free SSL certificate by Let’s Encrypt provided.
There’s also a Deluxe plan which offers 25 databases and 25 FTP accounts, while the Ultra account drops all restrictions entirely.
The Basic plan costs just $3.75 a month when billed yearly, the Deluxe costs $6.75, while the Ultra plan costs $13.75.
The one point to notice is that Domain.com doesn’t offer monthly plans, but instead only contracts for one, two, or three years and doesn’t charge extra counting on the length of the contract.
If you would like to try to web hosting on a budget, then as this provider’s name suggests, it aims to be inexpensive. You get some impressive value-for-money with Namecheap, particularly with an initial discount for the primary year, and there are some heavyweight plans here.
However, note the starter ‘value’ plan only gives you 20GB of disk drive space and 30 email accounts, but you get that at the worth of just $2.88 per month.
Namecheap offers a 99.9% connectivity guarantee and maybe a very easy service to line up, with an initial welcome email that points you in the right direction for everything you would possibly need (backed up by some impressive FAQs). It also plays host to a superb searchable knowledge domain.
To round things off, testing proved that this company generally offers above-average speeds compared to rivals, making this an excellent hosting provider for those that aren’t keen on doing an excessive amount of damage to their wallet.
WP Engine offers a comprehensive managed WordPress service that will assist you with setup, updates, security, performance optimization, troubleshooting, and an entire lot more.
Much of this is often invisible to the top user, as an honest managed service should be. No got to worry about WordPress updates, as an example – WP Engine handles these for you. Not blindly, simply when they’re released, like many other hosts: the corporate tests them carefully, first, to form sure they do not cause problems.
The powerful WP Engine platform provides many useful extras. An area allows you to figure on a replica of your site, which is ideal for testing new themes, plugins, or anything, without affecting the assembly site. besides that, integrated performance tests can benchmark your website and offer useful speedup tips.
This level of power isn’t cheap. Even the foremost basic WP Engine plan costs $30 a month ($22.5 a month initially), quite 3 times the worth of the budget competition. But if you are looking for an optimized environment, with quality tools and excellent support, this might be a price worth paying.
Liquid Web is an expert provider of high-end managed hosting solutions for everything from email to WordPress, WooCommerce, VPS, dedicated, and various other cloud products.
Most plans deliver much more than you would possibly expect. Liquid Web doesn’t just automatically update WordPress, for instance: it also updates your plugins during a separate, isolated environment to see for any issues before sending them to survive your production site.
Liquid Web’s VPS and dedicated server plans add even more managed to host features covering many areas. the corporate has its own data centers with fully managed hardware and network infrastructure. Key software is installed, updated, and supported, there are free external migrations, virus and spam protection keep threats cornered, and system monitoring enables speedy notification of problems.
Liquid Web won’t appeal to bargain hunters, and its baseline prices are often much above a number of the competition. However, what you’re paying for is that the highest quality support and high-end hardware, so you’re getting what you buy.